Applications of evolutionary theory to plant and animal breeding are discussed in the articles plant breeding and animal breeding.
An overview of the evolution of life as a major characteristic of Earth’s history is given in community ecology: Evolution of the biosphere.
Some are so radically different that paleontologists have created new phyla in order to classify them.
Genetics, a science born in the 20th century, reveals in detail how natural selection works and led to the development of the modern theory of evolution.Evolution, theory in biology postulating that the various types of plants, animals, and other living things on Earth have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modifications in successive generations.The theory of evolution is one of the fundamental keystones of modern biological theory. More than 2 million existing species of organisms have been named and described; many more remain to be discovered—from 10 million to 30 million, according to some estimates.Hereditary variants were thought to arise naturally in populations, and then these were either selected for or against by the contemporary environmental conditions.
In this Darwin and other 19th-century biologists found compelling evidence for biological evolution in the comparative study of living organisms, in their geographic distribution, and in the fossil remains of extinct organisms.It also shows successions of organisms through time ( faunal succession, law of; geochronology: Determining the relationships of fossils with rock strata), manifesting their transition from one form to another.